commit8da0f029eefe3dab9ec726d5207c888df4081c8bparent9679a3acea9bdb62286f5853cbc990d75db61a6aAuthor:Mattias Andrée <maandree@kth.se>Date:Sun, 19 Jun 2016 03:20:52 +0200 Manual: connectives Signed-off-by: Mattias Andrée <maandree@kth.se>Diffstat:

M | doc/bit-operations.tex | | | 75 | +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------------ |

1 file changed, 63 insertions(+), 12 deletions(-)diff --git a/doc/bit-operations.tex b/doc/bit-operations.tex@@ -251,26 +251,77 @@ We can think of this like so: consider $$ \lvert a \rvert = \sum_{i = 0}^\infty k_i 2^i,~ k_i \in \{0, 1\}, $$ \noindent -{\tt zbtest(a, b)} returns $k_b$. Equivalently, we can think -that {\tt zbtest(a, b)} return whether $b \in B$ where $B$ -is defined by +{\tt zbtest(a, b)} returns $k_b$. Equivalently, we can +think that {\tt zbtest(a, b)} return whether $b \in B$ +where $B$ is defined by $$ \lvert a \rvert = \sum_{b \in B} 2^b,~ B \subset \textbf{Z}_+, $$ \noindent -or as right-shifting $a$ by $b$ bits and returning whether the -least significant bit is set. +or as right-shifting $a$ by $b$ bits and returning +whether the least significant bit is set. -{\tt zbtest} always returns 1 or 0, but for good code quality, you -should avoid testing against 1, rather you should test whether the -value is a truth-value or a falsehood-value. However, there is -nothing wrong with depending on the value being restricted to being -either 1 or 0 if you want to sum up returned values or otherwise -use them in new values. +{\tt zbtest} always returns 1 or 0, but for good +code quality, you should avoid testing against 1, +rather you should test whether the value is a +truth-value or a falsehood-value. However, there +is nothing wrong with depending on the value being +restricted to being either 1 or 0 if you want to +sum up returned values or otherwise use them in +new values. \newpage \section{Connectives} \label{sec:Connectives} -TODO % zand zor zxor znot +libzahl implements the four basic logical +connectives: and, or, exclusive or, and not. +The functions for these are named {\tt zand}, +{\tt zor}, {\tt zxor}, and {\tt znot}, +respectively. + +The connectives apply to each bit in the +integers, as well as the sign. The sign is +treated as a bit that is set if the integer +is negative, and as cleared otherwise. For +example (integers are in binary): + +\begin{alltt} + zand(r, a, b) zor(r, a, b) + a = +1010 (input) a = +1010 (input) + b = -1100 (input) b = -1100 (input) + r = +1000 (output) r = -1110 (output) + + zxor(r, a, b) znot(r, a) + a = +1010 (input) a = +1010 (input) + b = -1100 (input) r = -0101 (output) + r = +0110 (output) +\end{alltt} + +Remember, in libzahl, integers are represented +with sign and magnitude, not two's complement, +even when using these connectives. Therefore, +more work than just changing the name of the +called function may be required when moving +between big integer libraries. Consequently, +{\tt znot} does not flip bits that are higher +than the highest set bit, which means that +{\tt znot} is nilpotent rather than idempotent. + +Below is a list of the value of {\tt a} when +{\tt znot(a, a)} is called repeatedly. + +\begin{alltt} + 10101010 + -1010101 + 101010 + -10101 + 1010 + -101 + 10 + -1 + 0 + 0 + 0 +\end{alltt}