libzahl

big integer library
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commit f1b60d7365ca1437efd3f6f8c05d2cdc46bd24b6
parent fba103dca7a472eb58159d45ff8700736f89a136
Author: Mattias Andrée <maandree@kth.se>
Date:   Thu, 12 May 2016 01:14:52 +0200

More on exponentiation by squaring

Signed-off-by: Mattias Andrée <maandree@kth.se>

Diffstat:
doc/arithmetic.tex | 55++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-
1 file changed, 54 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)

diff --git a/doc/arithmetic.tex b/doc/arithmetic.tex @@ -187,9 +187,62 @@ can be expressed as a simple formula \vspace{-1em} \[ \hspace*{-0.4cm} a^b = \prod_{i = 0}^{\lceil \log_2 b \rceil} - a^{2^i} \left \lfloor {b \over 2^i} \hspace*{-1ex} \mod 2 \right \rfloor + \left ( a^{2^i} \right )^{\left \lfloor {\displaystyle{b \over 2^i}} \hspace*{-1ex} \mod 2 \right \rfloor} \] +\noindent +This is a natural extension to the observations + +\vspace{-1em} +\[ \hspace*{-0.4cm} + \forall n \in \textbf{Z}_{+} \exists B \subset \textbf{Z}_{+} : b = \sum_{i \in B} 2^i + ~~~~ \textrm{and} ~~~~ + a^{\sum x} = \prod a^x. +\] + +\noindent +The algorithm can be expressed in psuedocode as + +\vspace{1em} +\hspace{-2.8ex} +\begin{minipage}{\linewidth} +\begin{algorithmic} + \STATE $r \gets 1$ + \STATE $f \gets a$ + \WHILE{$b \neq 0$} + \IF{$b \equiv 1 ~(\textrm{Mod}~ 2)$} + \STATE $r \gets r \cdot f$ + \ENDIF + \STATE $f \gets f^2$ \qquad \textcolor{c}{\{$f \gets f \cdot f$\}} + \STATE $b \gets \lfloor b / 2 \rfloor$ + \ENDWHILE + \RETURN $r$ +\end{algorithmic} +\end{minipage} +\vspace{1em} + +\noindent +Modular exponentiation ($a^b \mod m$) by squaring can be +expressed as + +\vspace{1em} +\hspace{-2.8ex} +\begin{minipage}{\linewidth} +\begin{algorithmic} + \STATE $r \gets 1$ + \STATE $f \gets a$ + \WHILE{$b \neq 0$} + \IF{$b \equiv 1 ~(\textrm{Mod}~ 2)$} + \STATE $r \gets r \cdot f \hspace*{-1ex}~ \mod m$ + \ENDIF + \STATE $f \gets f^2 \hspace*{-1ex}~ \mod m$ + \STATE $b \gets \lfloor b / 2 \rfloor$ + \ENDWHILE + \RETURN $r$ +\end{algorithmic} +\end{minipage} +\vspace{1em} + {\tt zmodpow} does \emph{not} calculate the modular inverse if the exponent is negative, rather, you should expect the result to be