1 .Dd 2016-12-27 2 .Dt ED 1 3 .Os sbase 4 .Sh NAME 5 .Nm ed 6 .Nd text editor 7 .Sh SYNOPSIS 8 .Nm 9 .Op Fl s 10 .Op Fl p Ar string 11 .Op Ar file 12 .Sh DESCRIPTION 13 .Nm 14 is the standard text editor. 15 It performs line-oriented operations on a buffer; The buffer's contents are 16 manipulated in command mode and text is written to the buffer in input mode. 17 Command mode is the default. 18 To exit input mode enter a dot ('.') on a line of its own. 19 .Pp 20 If 21 .Nm 22 is invoked with a file as an argument, it will simulate an edit command and read 23 the file's contents into a buffer. 24 Changes to this buffer are local to 25 .Nm 26 until a write command is given. 27 .Pp 28 .Nm 29 uses the basic regular expression syntax and allows any character but space and 30 newline to be used as a delimiter in regular expressions. 31 .Sh OPTIONS 32 .Bl -tag -width Ds 33 .It Fl s 34 Suppress diagnostic messages 35 .It Fl p Ar string 36 Use 37 .Ar string 38 as a prompt when in command mode 39 .El 40 .Sh EXTENDED DESCRIPTION 41 .Ss Addresses 42 Commands operate on addresses. 43 Addresses are used to refer to lines within the buffer. 44 Address ranges may have spaces before and after the separator. 45 Unless otherwise specified, 0 is an invalid address. 46 The following symbols are valid addresses: 47 .Bl -tag -width Ds 48 .It n 49 The nth line. 50 .It . 51 The current line, or "dot". 52 .It $ 53 The last line. 54 .It + 55 The next line. 56 .It +n 57 The nth next line. 58 .It ^ or - 59 The previous line. 60 .It ^n or -n 61 The nth previous line. 62 .It x,y 63 The range of lines from x to y. 64 The default value of x is 1, and the default value of y is $. 65 .It x;y 66 As above, except that the current line is set to x. 67 Omitting x in this case uses the current line as the default value. 68 .It /re/ 69 The next line matching re. 70 .It ?re? 71 The last line matching re. 72 .It 'c 73 The line marked by c. See k below. 74 .El 75 .Ss Commands 76 .Nm 77 expects to see one command per line, with the following exception: commands may 78 be suffixed with either a list, number, or print command. 79 These suffixed commands are run after the command they're suffixed to has 80 executed. 81 .Pp 82 The following is the list of commands that 83 .Nm 84 knows about. 85 The parentheses contain the default addresses that a command uses. 86 .Bl -tag -width Ds 87 .It (.)a 88 Append text after the addressed line. 89 The dot is set to the last line entered. 90 If no text was entered, the dot is set to the addressed line. 91 An address of 0 appends to the start of the buffer. 92 .It (.,.)c 93 Delete the addressed lines and then accept input to replace them. 94 The dot is set to the last line entered. 95 If no text was entered, the dot is set to the line before the deleted lines. 96 .It (.,.)d 97 Delete the addressed lines. 98 If there is a line after the deleted range, the dot is set to it. 99 Otherwise, the dot is set to the line before the deleted range. 100 .It e Ar file 101 Delete the contents of the buffer and load in 102 .Ar file 103 for editing, printing the bytes read to standard output. 104 If no filename is given, 105 .Nm 106 uses the currently remembered filename. 107 The remembered filename is set to 108 .Ar file 109 for later use. 110 .It E Ar file 111 As above, but without warning if the current buffer has unsaved changes. 112 .It f Ar file 113 Set the currently remembered filename to 114 .Ar file 115 , or print the currently remembered filename if 116 .Ar file 117 is omitted. 118 .It (1,$)g/re/command 119 Apply command to lines matching re. 120 The dot is set to the matching line before command is executed. 121 When each matching line has been operated on, the dot is set to the last line 122 operated on. 123 If no lines match then the dot remains unchanged. 124 The command used may not be g, G, v, or V. 125 .It (1,$)G/re/ 126 Interactively edit the range of line addresses that match re. 127 The dot is set to the matching line and printed before a command is input. 128 When each matching line has been operated on, the dot is set to the last line 129 operated on. 130 If no lines match then the dot remains unchanged. 131 The command used may not be a, c, i, g, G, v, or V. 132 .It h 133 Print the reason for the most recent error. 134 .It H 135 Toggle error explanations. 136 If on, the above behaviour is produced on all subsequent errors. 137 .It (.)i 138 Insert text into the buffer before the addressed line. 139 The dot is set to the last line entered. 140 If no text was entered, the dot is set to the addressed line 141 .It (.,.+1)j 142 Join two lines together. 143 If only one address is given, nothing happens. 144 The dot is set to the newly joined line. 145 .It (.)kc 146 Mark the line with the lower case character c. The dot is unchanged. 147 .It (.,.)l 148 Unambiguously print the addressed lines. 149 The dot is set to the last line written. 150 .It (.,.)m(.) 151 Move lines in the buffer to the line address on the right hand side. 152 An address of 0 on the right hand side moves to the start of the buffer. 153 The dot is set to the last line moved. 154 .It (.,.)n 155 Print the addressed lines and their numbers. 156 The dot is set to the last line printed. 157 .It (.,.)p 158 Print the addressed lines. 159 The dot is set to the last line printed. 160 .It P 161 Toggle the prompt. 162 Defaults to off, but is switched on if the -p flag is used. 163 .It q 164 Quit 165 .Nm 166 , warning if there are unsaved changes. 167 .It Q 168 As above, but without warning if the current buffer has unsaved changes. 169 .It ($)r Ar file 170 Read in 171 .Ar file 172 and append it to the current buffer, printing the bytes read to standard output. 173 The currently remembered filename isn't changed unless it's empty. 174 An address of 0 reads the file into the start of the buffer. 175 .It (.,.)s/re/replacement/flags 176 Substitute re for replacement in lines matching re. 177 An & within replacement is replaced with the whole string matched by re. 178 Backrefs can be used with the form \\n, where n is a positive non-zero integer. 179 When % is the only character in replacement, it is substituted for the 180 replacement string from the last substitute command. 181 If a newline is part of replacement then the matched string is split into two 182 lines; this cannot be done as part of a g or v command. 183 If flags contains an integer n, then the nth match is replaced. 184 If flags contains g, all matches are replaced. 185 The dot is set to the last line matched. 186 .It (.,.)t(.) 187 As m, but copying instead of moving. 188 The dot is set to the last line added. 189 .It u 190 Undo the last change. 191 The dot is set to whatever it was before the undone command was performed. 192 .It (1.$)v/re/command 193 As with g, but operating on lines that don't match re. 194 .It (1.$)V/re/ 195 As with G, but operating on lines that don't match re. 196 .It (1,$)w Ar file 197 Write the addressed lines to 198 .Ar file 199 , overwriting its previous contents if the file exists, and print the number of 200 bytes written. 201 If no filename is given the currently remembered filename will be used instead. 202 The dot is unchanged. 203 .It (1,$)W Ar file 204 As above, but instead of overwriting the contents of 205 .Ar file 206 the addressed lines are appended to 207 .Ar file 208 instead. 209 .It (.+1) 210 Print the addressed line. 211 Sets the dot to that line. 212 .It ($)= 213 Print the line number of the addressed line. 214 The dot is unchanged. 215 .It & 216 Repeat the last command. 217 .It ! Ar command 218 Execute 219 .Ar command 220 using sh. 221 If the first character of 222 .Ar command 223 is '!' then it is replaced with the text of the previous command. 224 An unescaped % is replaced with the currently remembered filename. 225 ! does not process escape characters. 226 When 227 .Ar command 228 returns a '!' is printed. 229 The dot is unchanged. 230 .El 231 .Sh SEE ALSO 232 .Xr sed 1 , 233 .Xr regexp 3 234 .Sh STANDARDS 235 The 236 .Nm 237 utility is compliant with the 238 .St -p1003.1-2013 239 specification, except where noted here: 240 g and v operate on single commands rather than lists delimited with '\\'. 241 e, E, r, w, and W commands cannot accept shell escapes.